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1981 to present


>1981 IBM introduces its personal computer which helps boost fortunes of PC market and within a few years begins to threaten Massachusetts minicomputer and word processing companies.


>1982 US Department of Justice dismisses long-running anti-trust action against IBM, freeing the company to compete more fiercely.    


>1982  As high tech growth makes unemployment a non-issue, people begin to talk of the Massachusetts Miracle.


 >1986 Digital Equipment Corporation founder Ken Olsen named “America’s Most Successful Entrepreneur” by Fortune magazine


 >1986 There are 4800 Radio Shack stores nationally



>1986 With $3 billion in revenue and 30,000 employees, Wang Laboratories ranks 161 on the Fortune 500. Bold Wang ads poke fun at IBM and hint at putting “Big Blue” out of business.


>1987 Most physical assets of United Shoe Machinery in Beverly are auctioned off as international competition mounts and nearly all US shoe manufacturers are out of business.


>1988: The first graphics supercomputers are announced by Chelmsford-based Apollo and its competitors.


>1988  Massachusetts Governor Mike Dukakis runs for presidency, partly on strength of “Massachusetts Miracle” and promise to America of “good jobs at good wages”


>1988 Digital Equipment Corporation employs 120,000 people, roughly half of them in Massachusetts, achieves market value of $24 billion and ranks 38 on the Fortune 500.


 >1988, IBM introduces mid-size Application System/400 (AS/400) computer aimed at minicomputer market and dubbed the "VAX killer” by industry pundits.


>1989 There are 50 million computers in service in the US.


>1989: Hewlett-Packard acquires Apollo for $476M.


>1989: Computer Associates acquires Cullinet for $333M.


>1989 After reaching a peak of 5,000 employees, Compugraphic’s typesetting business is undermined by the advent of inexpensive laser printers and personal computers leading to merger with Agfa-Gevaert, Inc.


>1991 Biotech pioneer, Collaborative Research, research products division sold to Becton, Dickinson and Company, name changed to Genome Therapeutics, Corp., Dr. Friedman continues to serve as CEO and chairman until following year.


 >1991: Wang agrees to resell IBM's PS/2, RS/6000 and minicomputers. IBM plans to invest $100M in Wang


>1992 Two years after the death of its founder, Dr. An Wang, Wang Laboratories seeks Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.


 >1992 Board of Digital Equipment Corporation forces Ken Olsen to leave the company he founded.


>1998 Digital Equipment Corporation purchased by PC-maker, Compaq for $9.6 billion.


>1998 EMC software revenue reaches $445 million, making EMC the world’s fastest-growing major software company Total revenue (including hardware) nears $4 billion, more than $1 billion from Europe.


>1999 EMC purchases Data General for $1.1 billion.


>2005 The biotech pioneer and Professor of Chemistry Emeritus, Dr. Orrie Friedman, pledges $3.5 million to endow a chair in chemistry at Brandeis University.








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